Some of the questions used in the real-life tests (i.e., as seen by the pupils) have been made available in the public domain.
Click the link below to see some items from PIRLS 2011 and PIRLS 2016. The 2011 sample items include average percent correct scores in Ireland and internationally.
Some items were straightforward multiple-choice, while others required pupils to write an answer. For the latter type of items, examples are included of correct written responses.