GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN IRISH SECOND-LEVEL SCHOOLS
Gerry Shiel and Mary Lewis
The paper begins with a description of guidance and counselling in second-level schools in the Republic of Ireland, tracing development of the service from its introduction in the mid-1960s to the early 1990s. The role of the guidance counsellor is considered in the contexts of educational, vocational, and career guidance; appraisal and assessment; personal counselling; and subject teaching. Interactions between guidance counsellors and school colleagues, parents, and external agencies also receive attention. Following the discussion of issues relating to the delivery and effectiveness of the service, some of the more urgent research needs revealed in the review are outlined.
GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND, 1973-1993
The purpose of this paper is to examine the content of primary school geography textbooks in the Republic of Ireland for the period 1973 to 1993. The impact which the new primary school curriculum had on the content of texts is assessed and the manner in which the revised guidelines of the mid-1980s were mediated by textbooks is evaluated. In general, the authors of geography texts rose to the challenges which resulted from the qualitative and quantitative changes that occurred in geography as a subject. They demonstrated that geography is primarily concerned with the relationship between people and their environment and openly and consistendy stated that their main function is to assist in the inculcation of caring attitudes towards the environment.
JOHN HENRY NEWMAN AND A CATHOLIC PRESENCE AT OXFORD
Brian W. Taylor
In the mid- 1860s, John Henry Newman was concerned with the possibility of establishing a Catholic preserve in Oxford to cater for the moral and spiritual needs of Catholic students. Several possibilities were considered: to found a Catholic university or college (about which Newman was ambivalent), to establish an Oratory which would act as a focal point for Catholic thought and a centre for Catholic youth, or to take over the Catholic mission at Oxford. Newman’s motives for being involved in the Oxford proposals are discussed as are the nature and reasons for the campaign that was waged against his involvement.
PLANNED INTEGRATED AND DESEGREGATED SCHOOLS IN NORTHERN IRELAND
Carol McClenahan, Ed Cairns, Seamus Dunn, and Valerie Morgan
Socioeconomic status level of residential segregation level of political violence in home areas and frequency of church attendance are examined for 11 to 12 year old (N=230) and 14 to 15 year old (N=152) pupils attending a planned integrated school, a Protestant desegregated school and a Catholic desegregated school in Northern Ireland. Of the total sample 52% were Protestant and 48% Catholic. While no differences were found for socioeconomic status there were significant differences for residential segregation and political violence levels among the Protestant and Catholic pupils as a function of school type. Pupils attending the Protestant desegregated school were more likely to live in religiously mixed areas than pupils in the other two schools while pupils attending the planned integrated school were more likely to live in areas with higher levels of political violence. Church attendance was found to differ significantly across the schools for Protestant pupils, only Protestant pupils from the Catholic desegregated and integrated schools attended less frequently than pupils in the Protestant desegregated school.
MODIFYING GENDER STEREOTYPES IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
Hugh Gash, Mark Morgan, and Ciaran Sugrue
Primary school teachers taught a programme designed to reduce stereotyped beliefs about gender in pupils from infants class to fifth class (5 to 11 years of age). The programme developed on the basis of constructivist theory involved teaching strategies designed to lead pupils to question existing beliefs. On measures administered before introducing the programme rural pupils were found to be more stereotyped than urban pupils and pupils in mixed sex schools differed from pupils in single sex schools in personal social stereotypes. The programme was found to be effective in infants classes and in urban but not in rural classes. There was also evidence that the programme diminished girls perceptions of gender stereotypes.