READING IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND: A BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brendan Molloy and Vincent Greaney
Studies of reading (N:157) which have been carried out in the Republic of Ireland are categorized under six headings: curriculum and curriculum evaluation, social factors and reading, psychology of reading, teaching and learning of reading, tests, and research summaries. The bibliography includes titles of books and tests, articles from professional and teacher journals and conference proceedings, official curriculum reports, and unpublished theses.
INFORMAL TEACHING IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL EFFECTS ON PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT
A sample of 4th class teachers (n=37) in Dublin city and county schools answered a questionnaire on teaching methods and were classified as either formal or informal teachers. Their pupils (n=961) were tested in English and Irish at the end of 3rd class and again at the end of 4th class. A difference in achievement was found in favour of formal methods. In English the difference was marginal. In Irish it was substantial amounting to a 10% advantage in favour of the formal classroom.
RECENT TRENDS IN THE FINANCING OF PRIMARY-TEACHER EDUCATION IN IRELAND
Andrew Burke and John Nolan
Current expenditure from public funds on pnmary-teacher education from 1975 to 1980 is examined. Unit-cost comparisons are made between students in primary teacher education, in the university sector generally, and in teacher-education programmes other than primary. The general level of support services afforded students for fees charged m the colleges of education is examined. The possible effects of the continuation, reduction or termination of such levels
of student support and services on the demand for places in primary teacher education, on the level of applications from highly qualified students, and on the composition (male/female and socio-economic) of intake to the colleges are also examined.
A FOURTH SURVEY OF READING COMPREHENSION IN DUBLIN CITY NATIONAL SCHOOLS
The survey reported here is the fourth in a series of surveys of reading comprehension of eleven year old pupils in Dublin city schools. Previous surveys were carried out in 1964 1969 and 1974, the present one in 1979. In each survey, pupils in a representative sample of Dublin city schools took the NS6 Reading Attainment Test. The findings of the present survey are based on the performance of 1,123 pupils in 22 schools. Mean performance in 1979 was 11117 (SD = 13.70) as against 100 (SD = 15) in 1964. A significant difference in attainment between the 1974 and 1979 samples, in favour of the latter, was recorded.
SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION IN ENGLAND AND GERMANY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
G W Roderick and M D Stephens
This paper begins by examining the growth and development of scientific and technological studies in English civic universities in the first half of the nineteenth century the factors which hindered such growth the rate of production of graduates and the opportunities available to them. It goes on to contrast scientific education in England and Germany. The origins and development of the German universities and technical high schools particularly in the context of chemical and engineering education are examined.
ACHIEVEMENT IN SPOKEN IRISH AT THE END OF PRIMARY SCHOOL
A criterion referenced test of spoken Irish based on the curriculum for fifth and sixth standards in national schools was administered to pupils in a national sample of classes (n=119) at the end of the sixth standard. The test was designed to assess whether pupils had mastered each of 16 speaking and listening objectives of the Nuachursaf (Cursai Comhra Gaeilge} for these standards. Fourteen of the objectives were mastered by less than 50% of pupils. Objectives which did not mvolve a precise knowledge of morphology and syntax (e g , sound discrimination’, ‘pronunciation’, ‘general comprehension of speech’, and ‘fluency of oral description’) were the ones most frequently mastered. More girls than boys mastered each of the objectives.
THE LEGITIMATION OF TEACHING STRATEGIES IN JUNIOR SCHOOLS
Teachers classroom strategies, using evidence from interviews with 45 teachers in three English junior schools, are considered. Teachers advocated and utilized what they described as formal teachmg strategies. It is argued that such strategies arise from the structural and organizational constraints of schools and classrooms and from teachers paradigmatic assumptions about the nature of educational processes, they are actively legitimated by teachers in terms of perspectives derived from such assumptions.
WHAT WOULD SOMEONE ELSE THINK? A STUDY OF TRAINING IN CHILDREN’S ROLE TAKING
In cognitive role-taking tasks children can accept that the viewpoint of another is different from their own before they develop the flexibility to say what it might possibly be. In this study, two methods of training role taking were employed which reflected this distinction between awareness and flexibility. Subjects were 48 French 7 year old children. The training method which emphasized awareness did not lead to decentration, but the method which promoted flexibility significantly increased role taking ability.
SOME THREATS TO ACADEMIC MENTAL HEALTH
Donna J Wood and James A Wilson
Recent changes in university culture and structure, which have resulted from changing market conditions, have had serious consequences for junior members of staff. Universities have exploited the situation created by declining enrolments and an increase in the number of people with higher academic qualifications by increasing work loads, reducing salaries, limiting opportunities for personal development, and making greater use of part-time teachers. On the basis of their responses to these conditions, junior faculty may be characterized as ‘pragmatists’, politicizers’, or pessimists. Implications of the measures adopted by universities and of individuals responses to them are examined for the psychological, social, and family lives of the individuals concerned.