INCIDENCE AND CORRELATES OF ILLITERACY IN IRISH PRIMARY SCHOOLS
Patricia J Fontes and Thomas Kellaghan
All sixth class pupils in 93 Irish primary schools were rated by teachers as either having or not having problems related to literacy (in reading and/or writing). Teachers perceived 62% of pupils as being unable to cope with everyday demands in reading while 66% were perceived as unable to cope with everyday demands in writing. A further 7% of pupils were perceived as being unable to cope with the reading demands of post primary schooling while 5.2% were perceived as being unable to cope with the writing demands of post primary schooling. Fifty nine per cent of the pupils with disabilities were perceived as having them in both reading and writing. Children with disabilities tended to be older than other sixth class pupils to score considerably lower on tests of verbal reasoning and English attainment and to be rated by their teachers as lower than other pupils on personal-social characteristics especially those related to school performance.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF LINEAR PATTERNING IN DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN OF THREE ETHNIC GROUPS
John S. Close and Vincent J. Glennon
The visual linear pattern task performance of a sample of Black, White and Hispanic children (N: 137) residing in economically disadvantaged urban areas was examined at three grade levels (prekindergarten, kindergarten and first grade) using a 72 pattern task instrument classified by cognitive process, mode of representation and pattern complexity. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences relating to grade-level and sex and to level of cognitive process and pattern complexity.
THE INTELLIGENCE AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF BORSTAL TRAINEES IN NORTHERN IRELAND
E B Turner and J B Agnew
Boys (N 395) committed for Borstal training in Northern Ireland during a six year period were tested on two measures of intelligence and four of educational attainment. Results indicated ability in the dull normal range performance being better on the non verbal intelligence test, with attainments at junior school level. Family size was of some significance but scores on all tests were highly correlated and not obviously related to attendance at controlled or maintained schools or to previous committal to training establishments.
SOCIOLOGISM, EPISTEMOLOGY AND EDUCATIONAL THEORY
Desmond L Bell
The problem of relativism of truth and knowledge has emerged as a central consequence of the reductionism of the Sociology of Educational Knowledge. With the increasing influence of the sociology of knowledge within the sociological analysis of education, analytical Philosophy of Education has challenged the sociologists’ encroachment on their traditional territory of epistemology. Philosophers of education have re-asserted the specificity and purity of their method of conceptual analysis over and above the empirical analysis of Sociology. They have also pointed to the worrying implications of sociologistic reductionism for educational practice. This paper questions the specificity of the method of conceptual analysis and in turn centrally locates analytical philosophy within an epistemic framework common with Sociology. It is within this framework, the historical materiality of knowledge, that the problem of relativism must be reposited and tackled and more over a synthesis between philosophical and sociological analysis of education developed, which might directly inform educational practice.
AFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENT CONCEPTIONS OF IRELAND
The affective development of the student’s conception of Ireland poses a problem for educators. For while it is frequently mentioned as an educational objective we are still unsure of its real nature. It is argued here that there is no comparable problem in the cognitive domain. A psychological theory of affective development is presented and the problem of evaluation is discussed. In the final section of the paper 100 essays are analyzed to produce a scale of affective development that could be used in large scale exploratory research.
THE STABILITY OF TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF PUPIL CHARACTERISTICS
Peter W Airasian, Thomas Kellaghan and George F Madaus
Eleven second grade and 18 fifth grade teachers were asked to rate their pupils (369 at second grade, 591 at fifth grade) on 12 personal characteristics in the first term of the school year and again in the final term. Factor analyses of the four ratings yielded two factors a classroom behaviour factor and a social behaviour factor. In all the analyses the two factors accounted for over 70 per cent of total variance. The factor structures in the four analyses were highly similar. There was however some evidence that teachers rating standards varied with grade.
A BENTHAM BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brian W Taylor
Works relating to Bentham s educational ideas are listed. They are categorized under the following headings: (i) Printed editions of the works of Bentham. (ii) General works on the history of the period which give special attention to Bentham and the utilitarians. (iii) Works of a general and philosophical nature which treat of Bentham and the philosophical radicals. (iv) Bentham and the subject of law reform. (v) Bentham and economics. (vi) Bentham and education. (vii) Bentham and philosophy. (viii) Bentham and the poor. (ix) Works on or by associates of Bentham which have some bearing on his work. (x) Articles in the Dictionary of National Biography. (xi) Miscellaneous works.
AGE, GENDER, INTELLIGENCE AND RELIGIOUS WORRIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS
A Simon and L O Ward
This study examines the relationships between age, gender intelligence and religious worries in a sample of 120 pupils aged 11 to 15 years attending a Welsh catholic comprehensive school. The pupils were administered the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test and a religious worries questionnaire. It was found that worries tended to decrease with age. Gender was not related to religious worry. A tendency for high intelligence to be slightly associated with worry in the younger group did not appear in the older group.