ISSUES CONCERNING EDUCATIONAL STUDIES AND TEACHER EDUCATION
The decision to grant university recognition to the colleges of education in Ireland is made the point of departure for a consideration of the requirements of teacher education and of the nature of educational studies. The position developed is then applied to support some critical remarks about the provision which Irish universities have up to now made for the study of education and to give substance to some worries which the colleges may have about their recognition by the university.
A HOME INTERVENTION PROJECT FOR PRESCHOOL DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN
Peter Archer and Thomas Kellaghan
This study examined the effectiveness of a home based intervention programme which was carried out over a two year period in the homes of twelve disadvantaged children aged between two and four years. A control group of twelve children was selected at the same time as the experimental group. The effects of the programme were assessed after one year and again after two years. At the end of the first year differences between the groups were not significant on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale. At the end of the second year, differences on the same test between the groups were again not significant. Neither were significant differences found in mothers reported methods of dealing with children’s questions or in their reported control techniques (both based on interview data).
LANGUAGE LABORATORIES IN SCHOOLS
Rosalind M 0 Pritchard
The technical characteristics of various types of language laboratory are outlined. The difficulties of effective monitoring by teachers and accurate auditory discrimination by pupils are highlighted and the theoretical rationale underlying most commercial laboratory material is critically examined. Some major research studies into the effectiveness of language laboratories are discussed. It is suggested that laboratories give only a slight initial advantage in speech production and that their educational , usefulness is not always commensurate with their cost and technological sophistication.
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MATHEMAGENIC ACTIVITIES PROGRAMME
Hugh Gash and Charles D Smock
Cognitive developmental measures of role-taking ability and classification skills were administered to eighty two white children randomly selected from two Mathemagenic Activities Programme (MAP) classrooms and two non MAP classrooms at first second, and third grade. Cartoons were used to measure role taking ability in the tradition of Flavell et al (5). Two measures of classification were used. There was some support for the hypothesis that the classroom environment experienced in MAP facilitated role taking ability however classification skill was not affected at a statistically significant level.
OVER AND UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN READING AND MATHEMATICS
John A. Wilson
To test the hypothesis that over- and under-achievement in attainment will approximate to the normal distribution, standardized scores on group tests of reading and mathematics were regressed on non-verbal intelligence for each of four pupil samples, boys and girls at ages seven and ten. The hypothesis was confirmed. The further hypothesis that pupil overachievement in mathematics and boys’ under-achievement in reading will each exceed statistical expectation was confirmed for mathematics but not for reading.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN A CIVIC UNIVERSITY: LIVERPOOL 1881-1914
G. W. Roderick and M. D. Stephens
This article describes the financial difficulties encountered by the
founders of University College, Liverpool in the face of the parsimony and indifference of the central government. Owing to the costs involved these difficulties were particularly acute in the sciences and technologies. The article illustrates the extent to which leading citizens were prepared to make personal sacrifices to support the new institution, motivated in no small part by their awareness of the great strides made in German higher education and its influence on that country’s growing industrial strength. The article also deals with another problem that was encountered, namely, that of creating and maintaining ‘university standards’ against a background of deficient secondary schools and a dearth of scholarships. Finally, the role of research and changing attitudes to it are considered.
IRISH LANGUAGE TEACHING: A SURVEY OF TEACHER PERCEPTIONS
James F Lindsey
A sample of Irish primary teachers (N 125) responded in structured interviews concerning their perceptions of the relationships of Irish language teaching to (i) educational policy related to the Irish language, (ii) learners (iii) long range benefits to learners as adults (iv) sources and quality of parent support and (v) teacher preparation. Lack of a commonly accepted goal for teaching the language was evident, but new curriculum recommendations on time allocation were generally observed. The lack of a common goal was also reflected in reactions to organization and policy proposals. Teachers preference was for greater emphasis on conversational development than curriculum guidelines suggest. Immediate and long range benefits to learners were ill-defined and tangible parental support was perceived as frequently absent. Preservice training was seen as the sole preparation for teaching Irish for most teachers. In-service up-dating was infrequently men tioned as being of assistance.
AGE, SEX, INTELLIGENCE AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS IN 11- to 15-YEAR OLD PUPILS
A Simon and L 0 Ward
This study examines the influence of age, sex and intelligence on the religious beliefs of 120 pupils aged 11 to 15 years attending a Welsh Catholic comprehensive school. The pupils were administered the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test and a religious belief questionnaire. A clear tendency for religious uncertainty to be correlated with growing age was detected. Although sex was not a significant factor in the younger age group, the tendency of girls to hold firmer beliefs became quite clear in the older group when boys tended to become increasingly uncertain and critical. Intelligence appears to exercise a subtle influence on religious belief in that it influences some beliefs more than others and the existence of a sex related factor with older and more intelligent girls remaining firm in their beliefs was another finding of the investigation.