INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN THE UNIVERSITIES
Technological developments following the industrial revolution have produced vast changes in living conditions. A broadly based education is necessary if individuals are going to be able to cope adequately with changing technological and cultural conditions. Historically, third level education in many countries has ignored the need for inter-disciplinary education. Humanistic studies, however, are incomplete and fossilized unless they embrace the dynamic of science and technology, on the other hand, technology untouched by the vision, insight and sensitivity of the humanities leads to a nightmare. Despite obvious difficulties, education must attempt to become more inter disciplinary in the future.
THE POST-PRIMARY SCHOOL AS A SOCIALIZING AGENT
Denis O ’Sullivan
Studies of the post primary schools’ involvement in the socialization of adolescents provide little evidence of an independent influence in socialization. It is suggested that the main contribution of the school is to reinforce existing attitudes and values, be they occuparional, political, social or religious. Differences between schools account for only a small amount of variation in attainment, the effects of particular aspects of the school on attainment remain unclear. The relevance of the findings to the issue of separate religious schooling and to education in working class and in rural areas is considered.
THE TRAINING OF ADULT EDUCATION TUTORS
MICHAEL D STEPHENS AND GORDON W ROCKERICK
The provision of training for adult education tutors has made increasing, but uneven, progress within England since the Second World War. This article attempts to use the more major established developments as a framework to suggest what should be provided regarding professionalisation. Beginning with such fundamental questions as What is a tutor of adults?and What needs should such a tutor be serving? the essay moves onto a discussion of the fields of induction courses, the training of experienced teachers, the special problems related to those who organise and administer adult education programmes, and those who formulate educational policy. Amongst specific problem areas of training reviewed, special note is made of those dealing with the early school leaver who comes to the adult class, and tutors interested in promoting an adjustment to a rapidly changing society.
ATTITUDES OF CO-EDUCATED AND SINGLE-SEX EDUCATED UNIVERSITY STUDENTS TOWARDS THE OPPOSITE SEX
R R Dale and P McC Miller
Using the semantic differential technique, 274 first-year university students rated the concept the opposite sex’ producing scores on three factors evaluation’ potency and activity’. The difference between the ratings given by men and women on potency was greater for those from single-sex schools than for those from co educational schools (P<0.05), with the co-educated men rating women more highly on potency than did those from boys schools and the co educated women, placing men lower on this scale than did those from girls schools. The co-educated men also tended (not significantly) to rate women as more active’ than did those from boys schools. On potency and activity women rated the opposite sex much higher than did men (P<0.001) with near equality on ‘evaluation’.
SCIENCE TEACHING IN IRISH SCHOOLS 1860-1970
The history of the teaching of science subjects in Irish schools is traced from 1860 onwards in terms of major institutional and organisational changes which affected it. Public bodies and their actions are the focus of attention. This provides a context in which to view current reforms of curricula and teaching methods in science subjects.
MICROTEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION: A CRITICAL REAPPRAISAL
Brendan J Spelman and Caroline St John -Brooks
Microteaching has been suggested as a partial answer to the question ‘What is teacher effectiveness?’, particularly in the context of teacher education. The theoretical basis of microteaching is examined, and the implications of its present behaviourist position for teacher education are discussed. The suitability of microteaching as a paradigm for a teaching theory is questioned, and it is concluded that while microteaching continues to take its main impetus from techniques such as task analysis and operant conditioning, so long will it remain an unnecessarily limited response to the problems of teacher education.
COGNITIVE AND PERSONALITY FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CLASS PLACEMENT OF PUPILS
Vincent Greaney and Thomas Kellaghan
Teachers of a representative sample of eleven-year old Irish pupils (N 402) responded to a questionnaire about (i) the class place of the pupils, (ii) the perceived difficulties of pupils in individual curricular areas (cognitive domain), and (iii) the perceived personality characteristics of the pupils (moral domain). Multiple regression analyses indicated that a pupil’s class place was related more to moral than to cognitive factors. The most important moral factor predicting class place was achievement tendency. The most important cognitive factors predicting class place were written English, written Irish, and problem arithmetic. Considerable over-lap was found between the cognitive and moral factors in teachers’ ratings.
MINING EDUCATION IN ENGLAND AND WALES IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
G W Roderick and M D Stephens
Mining, in particular coal mining, figured prominently in Britain’s export trade during the second half of the nineteenth century. This was so despite inadequate facilities for mining education at both manager and worker level. Despite the adverse criticisms of Royal Commissions which pointed out the urgency of the problem governments did little other than set up a School of Mines around mid century and even this, for a variety of reasons, did not meet with the success expected of it. Mining areas such as Wigan and Cornwall attempted to take matters into their own hands and established mining institutions, but these suffered from the lack of financial support and from other factors. Training was based on apprenticeship schemes and whereas mining education on the Continent became a part of the higher education system at an early date, in Britain mining did not become a recognisable academic discipline until the 1880s. The result was that only a handful of the industry’s leaders received a rigorous scientific training prior to 1900.
CO-OPTATION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN ENGLISH COLLEGES OF EDUCATION
Informal co-optation is one strategy open to an organisation threatened by increased dependence upon elements in its task-environment. The strategy was observed through participant observation in the changing relationship between a university and its constituent colleges of education, after the introduction of the B Ed degree in England. Elements within the leadership of the colleges countered their greatly-increased dependence in academic matters upon the university subject departments by informally co opting the latter. They were successful in restoring their own sense of control, but the inclusion of university members in policy making bodies encouraged the growth in the colleges of sub-groups whose aim was the pursuit of degree-oriented goals, and thus the dedication of scarce resources to them. The likelihood of goal conflict was perceived to have increased as a result, threatening the pervasive good-fellowship of the colleges. Thus, co-optation, adopted to preserve the independence of the colleges, undermined two important institutional goals.
THE SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE OF CHILDREN IN A DISADVANTAGED AREA
Thomas Kellaghan and Deirdre Brugha
The performance of a group of 8- and 9-year old children (n 60) living in a disadvantaged inner-city area was examined on a series of measures of cognitive ability and scholastic performance. Comparable data were ‘ obtained for a sample of children of similar age (n 60) selected as being representative of children living in ‘non disadvantaged’ areas in the same city. The poorer performance of children in the disadvantaged area was most obvious on tests with a high verbal content. The scholastic attainment of children in the disadvantaged area varied significantly according to school attended.