This World Bank publication is authored by the late Thomas Kellaghan, founder and former director of the ERC, and Vincent Greaney. It describes public examination practices in an extensive range of countries and is likely to be of interest and relevance to policymakers, teachers, test and curriculum developers and examiners nationally and internationally. It draws on a considerable body of international sources. The evidence highlights important issues related to the design of examinations, such as assessment of higher-order cognitive skills, administration procedures, and use of results. The reader is presented with a selection of assessment approaches and issues to be considered by examination and curriculum agencies, including evidence of what has worked and not worked in specific situations. The book emphasises the need for caution in that changes can give rise to both positive and unanticipated negative outcomes for teaching and learning.
The book may be accessed free of charge at this link: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/32352